OCT is a noninvasive system that allows for cross-sectional imaging in vivo, using light waves, which are akin to the sound waves in ultrasonography. The purpose of this article is to discuss the interpretations and limitations of OCT imaging. Cost of plaquenil in canada Chloroquine phosphate autophagy Plaquenil sanofi ulotka Plaquenil-induced maculopathy is a form of retinal toxicity that is associated with long-term use of of the anti-inflammatory medication plaquenil. The drug-induced maculopathy is associated with the following risk factors Cumulative dose level of 1,000 grams of plaquenil. Patients with existing retinal or macular disease. Risk factors for toxicity. Reported risk factors for toxicity include daily dose 400 mg, or 6.5 mg/kg ideal/lean body weight for short individuals; cumulative dose 1000 g; duration of use 5 years; renal or hepatic dysfunction; obesity; age 60 years; and pre-existing retinal disease or maculopathy 31. Results. Recently published work provides evidence showing a strong relationship not only between the retinal nerve fiber layer and visual threshold in optic nerve disorders, but also between visual sensitivity and the inner layers of the retina in the macula where the cell bodies of ganglion cells reside. Low-coherence interferometry was then adapted for use in OCT. The initial application of low-coherence interferometry in ophthalmology was for measurements of axial length. Ganglion cell layer and plaquenil toxicity Bull's-eye maculopathy due to hydroxychloroquine toxicity, Hydroxychloroquine-related retinal toxicity Rheumatology. Chloroquine ocular side effects Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine belong to the quinolone family. They are related drugs with similar clinical indications for use and similar manifestations of retinal toxicity, although their therapeutic and toxic doses differ. Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity Treatment.. The Role of the Macula OCT Scan in. - PubMed Central PMC. A New Objective Parameter in Hydroxychloroquine-Induced.. Thinning of the GCL and a decrease in visual functions should theoretically occur in concurrence with or follow degenerative loss of ganglion cells. The degree of ganglion cell degeneration that is sufficient to produce clinical symptoms or a detectable abnormality on psychophysical testing is essentially unknown. Apr 16, 2010 Our study results suggest that chronic exposure to hydroxychloroquine is associated with thinning of the perifoveal inner retinal layers, especially in the ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers. The ganglion cell affectation, with subsequent RNFL thinning and ultimately photoreceptor damage has been corroborated in other reports. 33-35 A recent report suggests that significant retinal thinning occurs 1.0mm from the foveal center in patients with early and late toxicity and that measuring thickness at 1.0 mm from the fovea may help screen for early toxicity. 36 Another report highlights the compromise of the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment junction as an early diagnostic.